tympanosclerosis in 9% and 28% of PCD patients post-VT insertion. Compared with means of 32% and 36.6% in general population (meta analysis) TM Structural Changes. atelectasis in PCD , incidence varied from 3% to 50%, compared with 10% of general population. PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: trainin Tympanosclerosis is a sequel of chronic otitis media characterized by deposition of calcareous plaques following hyaline degeneration in the fibrous layer of the tympanic membrane and inside middle ear mucosa. Our objective is to describe a novel ossiculoplasty techinique to improve the hearing loss in conductive hearing loss due to fixed. Tympanosclerosis has always been controversial regarding hearing loss management. Most arguments are regarding durability of results and inability of surgery to stop the ongoing process of the pathology which leads to recurrence of hearing loss. Some even believe tympanosclerosis to be a contraindication for Table 3 Tympanometry & Clinical Applications. 1. Dr. Mona Hassan Selim Prof. of Audiology Cairo University Dr. Mona Selim. 2. Acoustic immittancemetry• Acoustic immittance is a general term used to refer to an acoustic energy transfer regardless of the manner in which it is measured. Dr. Mona Selim. 3 Through the Otoscope: The mysterious tympanosclerosis. Rensink, Michael J. MD. Author Information. Dr. Rensink is a member of ENT Associates of San Diego, and has been a practicing ENT specialist for more than 35 years. The Hearing Journal: January 2012 - Volume 65 - Issue 01 - p 6. doi: 10.1097/01.HJ.0000410386.88647.89
. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for Best PowerPoint Templates from Presentations Magazine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect
Tympanosclerosis is a unique reparative response believed to be secondary to middle ear inflammation. Tympanosclerosis consists of brittle chalk-like plaque that is typically found within the tympanic membrane, affecting the ossicles, and on the medial wall of the middle ear. Reversing the inflammatory process is believed to eliminate the. In the group of coronary atherosclerosis, 10 patients have tympanosclerosis (5.9%). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Recurrent Inflammation. Recurrent inflammation from chronic OM can also lead to tympanosclerosis. Other associated fibrotic conditions include contracture of the plantar fascia (Ledderhose disease) and tympanosclerosis (Jordan & McCammon, 2012. . Tympanosclerosis is a commonly encountered entity within ENT clinics and primary care settings. Recognizing ear pathology is essential for correct management. Oftentimes the diagnosis is clear; however in certain cases further workup to rule out other more insidious disease processes is warranted. Case Report . We present a case of tympanosclerosis which presented as an ear mass.
Tympanosclerosis has been well described by many investigators. 1-8 The TS plaques are located in the lamina propria of the TM. The microstructure, as seen under the electron microscope, is composed of an irregular 3-dimensional collagen lattice, enclosing spherical mineralized aggregates that are masses of calcium phosphate Segmental atrophy and tympanosclerosis were the most common abnormalities found. At the age of 6 years, mean pure-tone average audiometric thresholds in the early-treatment, late-treatment, and nontrial groups, respectively, were 6.18 dB, 5.49 dB, and 4.63 dB in left ears and 6.17 dB, 6.02 dB, and 4.32 dB in right ears 2. Case Presentation. We present our operative procedure of simple underlay myringoplasty with myringosclerosis (Figure 1(a)) over the whole tympanic membrane under general anesthesia.The indications for surgery include hearing improvement after closure of the perforation by paper patch, dry ear at operation, and wide/straight external ear canal Myringosclerosis is known as intratympanic tympanosclerosis is the result of calcification of tympanic membrane. It results in diminshed hearing. It results in diminshed hearing. 2 article feature images from this cas Tympanosclerosis has always been controversial regarding hearing loss management. Most arguments are regarding durability of results and inability of surgery to stop the ongoing process of the pathology which leads to recurrence of hearing loss. Some even believe tympanosclerosis to be a contraindication for Table 3
Objective: Surgery for tympanosclerosis has always been challenged with the risk of deterioration of hearing or the recurrence of the disease. If surgery is indicated, controversy exists regarding staging versus nonstaging and whether to perform stapedectomy or mobilize the fixed ossicles by removal of plaques Management of tympanosclerosis with ossicular fixation: review and presentation of long-term results of 30 new cases. Yetiser S, Hidir Y, Karatas E, Karapinar U J Otolaryngol 2007 Oct;36(5):303-8. PMID: 1796367
Tympanosclerosis Presenting as Mass: Workup and Differential JonnaeY.Barry,SaranyaReghunathan,andAbrahamJacob Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, e University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Jonnae Y. Barry; email@example.com Received June ; Revised August ; Accepted Augus Introduction: The aim of the present study is to study cases of tympanosclerosis retro-prospectively in regards to their clinical presentation and also their surgical management. Materials & Methods: 73 cases of tympanosclerosis were studied over a period of two years. Patients were also classified as those operated by the consultant surgeon and the resident surgeon 3/21/2016 1 Sixth Annual ENT for the PA-C | March 30 - April 3, 2016| Orlando, FL Abnormal Audiograms in Ear Pathology Presented by Lori Klingenberg, Au.D. CCC‐
SECRETORY OTITIS MEDIA (Otitis Media with Effusion) EFUNNUGA HENRIETTA A. GROUP 403, 4TH COURSE. INTRODUCTION Otitis media with effusion (OME), also called serous or secretory otitis media (SOM) or glue ear, is simply a collection of fluid that occurs within the middle ear space due to the negative pressure produced by altered Eustachian tube function Mild tympanosclerosis manifest by a thick, dense TM (arrows in A) with retraction and perhaps calcification (arrow in B). This was associated with chronic otitis media and a mastoid cholesteatoma. Note the blunted scutum (arrowhead in A) and the erosion of the Koerner septum (arrows in C) as well as remodeling of the antral wall (arrowhead in C) Tympanosclerosis Bioinformatics Tool Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Tympanosclerosis below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide The utility of surgery for tympanosclerosis has been a controversial topic among otologic surgeons for many decades. Knowing the variations in tympanosclerotic involvement, different aspects of surgical technique, and audiologic outcomes data can help inform the discussion of optimal management between surgeon and patient. Tympanosclerosis can involve all structures in the middle ear, and the. u001f tympanogram is a graph of the compliance of the middle ear system over a pressure gradient ranging from. +200 to -400 mm H 2 O. u001f peak of tympanogram occurs at the point of maximum compliance where the pressure in the external canal is. equivalent to the pressure in the middle ear
Current concepts of formation of tympanosclerosis in the middle ear are reviewed, as are various clinical considerations. Ultrastructural changes are discussed. A differential diagnosis includes disorders affecting middle ear sound conduction, with the most prevalent involving otosclerosis and cholesteatoma •151 ears with tympanosclerosis •Significant increase in ABG in most patients MutluF, IseriM, Erdogan S, Ozturk M, Sari F. An Analysis of Surgical Treatment Results of Patients With Tympanosclerosis. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 26(8), 2015 Tympanic Membrane Retraction Without Cholesteatom OBJECTIVE: Surgery for tympanosclerosis has always been challenged with the risk of deterioration of hearing or the recurrence of the disease. If surgery is indicated, controversy exists regarding staging versus nonstaging and whether to perform stapedectomy or mobilize the fixed ossicles by removal. Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. Results. The study included 940 ears that underwent tympanoplasties due to CSOM, where 238 out of 940 (25.3%) of ears showed tympanosclerosis during tympanoplasty, intraoperatively, tympanosclerosis was localized to the eardrum in 174 of the 238 involved ears (73.1%), A 64 out of 238 (26.9%) of the ears with tympanosclerosis showed.
Otosclerosis Diagnosis. If you notice you have trouble hearing, see an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor, or ENT). They will look closely at your ear, test your hearing, and ask about. Figure9 AdvancedAcuteOtitis Media If the infection progresses, the tympanic membrane may rupture, releasingthepurulentmiddle-earexudateintothe externalcanal. AsAOMis abacterial infection, systemicantibiotics effec- tive against the causative organisms (amoxicillin or amoxi- cillin combined with clavulinic acid) are the mainstay of treatment. Figure10 MucoidOtitis Media.
Tympanometry. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Nov 1;70 (9):1713-1720. Tympanometry provides useful quantitative information about the presence of fluid in the middle ear, mobility of the middle ear system. Otitis Media Otitis Media It is the most common disease of childhood, next to viral URTI. It is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. The most frequent disease treated with antibiotics. A middle ear infection occurs when a virus or bacteria cause inflammation in the area behind the eardrum Tympanosclerosis is an irreversible pathological change in the tympanic membrane and mucosa of the middle ear due to prolonged chronic inflammation (1). This condition can damage the auditory ossicles and block hearing conduction. Patients may suffer from hearing loss, otorrhea, tinnitus an Myringosclerosis is secondary to calcification and hyalinization of the connective tissue of the tympanic membrane 1. These changes are thought to be caused by long-term inflammation, in which collagen fibers are destroyed, and replaced by exudate with granulation tissue 1. Intraepithelial hemorrhages in a post-traumatic setting e.g. causes such as tympanosclerosis causing stapes ﬁ xation and secretory otitis media 7. Patients with active otosclerosis (Schwartze sign positive). Those patients who are willing for surgery after proper counseling were selected (this includes those not willing for hearing aid and ﬂ uoride therapy). Patients with otosclerosi
where 238 out of 940 (25.3%) of ears showed tympanosclerosis during tympanoplasty, intraoperatively, tympanosclerosis was localized to the eardrum in 174 of the 238 involved ears (73.1%), A 64 out of 238 (26.9%) of the ears with tympanosclerosis showed ossicular fixation, divided as 45 ears with Incudo-mallea Histopathology of Chronic Otitis Media. Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear cleft. It has been suggested that all types of otitis media represent different stages of a continuum of events, with the acute stage leading to a chronic stage. 1 In addition, one form of otitis media may resolve or lead to a more chronic stage of the. Procedure. Stapes reconstruction is most often used to restore conductive hearing loss in patients with otosclerosis or congenital abnormalities (, 5).Stapes reconstruction is also performed for discontinuity or fracture resulting from prior basilar skull fracture, binding cicatricial adhesions, or tympanosclerosis (, 6).Stapedectomy involves resection of all or part of the footplate to open.
. When the condition affects only the eardrum, it is called myringosclerosis. Support Services. Patients who have had surgery to remove an acoustic neuroma can work with our vestibular therapy team. These specialized. Introduction. Tympanosclerosis, which mainly affects the tympanic membrane and middle-ear mucosa, is an irreversible disease in humans. Although the aetiology and pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis are still not well known, it is widely believed that tympanosclerosis commonly develops secondary to acute or chronic inflammation of the middle ear, Reference Wielinga and Kerr 1 and as a result of.
The aim of our study is to demonstrate the surgical management of myringosclerosis over a perforated whole tympanic membrane using simple underlay myringoplasty. Simple underlay myringoplasty with fibrin glue was performed in 11 ears with myringosclerosis over the entire tympanic membrane. The patients were one male and ten females and their mean age was 61.8 years (range, 40-73 yr) • Tympanosclerosis • Ossicular and Prosthetic Dislocation after Tympanoplasty • Cholesteatoma • Otosclerosis • Stapedotomy Laser use in the Inner Ear • Cochleostomy • Peripheral Vestibular Disorders • Tinnitus and Sensorineural Hearing Loss • Acoustic Neuroma Lasers in Rhinology • Turbinate Reduction • Septoplasty. The present study aimed to explore the role of TGF‑β1‑mediated epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension to establish a rat model of tympanosclerosis. The rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after the model was established
Chronic suppurative otitis media. Definition: persistent drainage from the. middle ear. through a perforated tympanic membrane lasting > 6-12 weeks. Epidemiology. : most common in children and. adolescents. < 15 years old. Etiology: bacterial infection following perforation of the tympanic membrane due to Myringotomy is the incision on the tympanic membrane to remove accumulated fluid or to provide aeration in case of malfunctioning eustachian tube. Ventilation tubes (VT) are small prosthetic tubes open at both the ends and are inserted into the incisions during myringotomy. A: Shephard's grommet. B: Armstrong's grommet A review of 800 pathological temporal bones collected from autopsy cases revealed 333 ((41.6%) to have some type of otitis media; purulent otitis media (52.5%), serous otitis media (6%), mucoid otitis media (4.5%), and chronic otitis media (36.9%). The 123 temporal bones with chronic otitis media we Tympanosclerosis Tympanosclerosis is the accumulation of hyaline material, or white plaque, in the fibrous layer of the tympanic membrane. [helpmehear.ca] Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy Ossicular Reconstruction Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks Surgical Treatment of Peripheral Vestibular Disorders Hearing Aids Tinnitus [books.
of the tympanic membrane, chronic otitis media, tympanosclerosis and cholesteatoma are encountered most often in clinical practice. Modern techniques for reconstruction of the ossicular chain aim for best possible hearing improvement using delicate alloplastic titanium prostheses, but a number of prosthesis-unrelated factors work against this. Primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HTP) is the third most common endocrine disorder, after diabetes and thyroid dysfunction, with the highest incidence in postmenopausal women. The estimated prevalence of P-HPT in the general population is one to two cases/1,000 inhabitants, with a 2-3 : 1 female-to-male ratio Objective:The main aim is to discuss the effect of nasal septal deviation on the postoperative hearing results of patients with tympanosclerosis.Material and Methods:We analyzed the hearing results.. Vertigo is a subtype of dizziness, which results from an imbalance within the vestibular system. This seminar focuses on three common presentations of vertigo: prolonged spontaneous vertigo, recurrent attacks of vertigo, and positional vertigo. The patient's history is usually the key to differentiation of peripheral and central causes of vertigo
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reviewing this module, the student will have the ability to: - Develop a systematic approach to interviewing and examining the ENT patient - Gain understanding of all components of the comprehensive head and neck physical exam - Learn about what special tools are used in Otolaryngology to examine the patien Perform a listening check. Tympanic membrane: If the patient has a perforation or a patent ventilation tube, the tympanogram will be flat. Solution: Note the equivalent ear canal volume. If it is greater than average and the other ear, the most likely explanation is a hole in the tympanic membrane. Repeat otoscopy Otitis media (OM), inflammation of the middle ear, is a common cause of hearing loss in children and in patients with many different syndromic diseases. Studies of the human population and mouse models have revealed that OM is a multifactorial disease with many environmental and genetic contributing factors. Here, we report on otitis media-related hearing loss in asj (ages with stiffened. Otitis media, an inflammation of the middle ear, is associated with a middle ear effusion (a collection of fluid in the middle ear space) or otorrhea (a discharge from the ear through a perforation in the tympanic membrane or ventilating tube). Otitis media can be further classified by its associated clinical symptoms, otoscopic findings, duration, frequency, and complications into acute. Donna Sorkin, M.A. • Vice President, Consumer Affairs, Cochlear Americas • Manage Cochlear Americas HOPE program • Address public policy issues impacting our recipient community • Previously, Executive Director of HLAA and AG Bell • Advocate for consumers and familie
In this article, we will discuss the Management of Barbiturate Poisoning.So, let's get started. Management. 1. To remove the unabsorbed drug from the stomach by gastric lavage, activated charcoal 50 g every four to six hours.. 2. To excrete the drug through stool by catharsis.. Each cycle consists of 1000 ml of dextrose saline + 10 ml of KCl and 100 ml of NaHCO3 followed by 1000 ml of 5%. download powerpoint presentation About This Presentation Description : Check out this medical presentation on Ear, Nose, and Throat Facts, which is titled Anatomy, Physiology and Disorders of the Hearing, to know about the anatomy physiology and disorders of the hearing Internal abnormalities. Acute otitis media with effusion AOME. Showing a bulging tympanic membrane with clear fluid behind. Perforation of the right tympanic membrane resulting from previous severe acute otitis medi Tympanosclerosis is a long term sequlae of chronic otitis media. There was a slight predominance towards males (53.4%) of all cases of tympanosclerosis with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1. Bhaya et al.  and Yabe et al. (1995) had reported a male to female ratio of 1.6:1 and 1.8:1 respectively whereas Pal et al. in their study had.
tympanosclerosis. Position of drum - Retracted (cholesteatoma, infection), bulging (infection), perforation . Ossicles: The malleus, incus and stapes can be seen sometimes through the tympanic membrane especially if there is a perforation. Pneumatic otoscopy can also be used to assess tympani • Tympanosclerosis -May lead to conductive hearing loss. • Mastoiditis -- Patients with acute mastoiditis present with fever, ear pain, and a protruding auricle. • Meningitis • With increasing antibiotic resistance, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, these complications may again become more common
from the Journal of Otolaryngology OBJECTIVE:Surgery for tympanosclerosis has always been challenged with the risk of deterioration of hearing or the recurrence of the disease. If surgery is indicated, controversy exists regarding staging versus nonstaging and whether to perform stapedectomy or mobilize the fixed ossicles by removal of plaques Timponosklerosis ini diklasifikasikan sebagai berikut : Intratympanic tympanosclerosis, mengenai bagian telinga tengah lain. —- Membran timpani merupakan pembentuk utama dinding lateral telinga tengah. Lapisan tipis, resisten, semitransparan, abu-abu mengkilat, dan mirip kerucut (cone-like). Apeks membrane timpani terletak pada umbo, yang. Thickening of the TM from tympanosclerosis Extreme flaccidness Fluid Cholesteatoma Glomus tumor. 7/29/2014 20 #6 Air. Call for Papers - International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) is a Fully Refereed - Peer Reviewed International Journal. Notably, it is a Referred, Highly Indexed, Online International Journal with High Impact Factor
-Tympanosclerosis -Tympanic Membrane Perforation -Tympanic Membrane Atelectasis -Cholesteatoma -Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss -Ototoxicity -Noise Induced Hearing Loss -Presbycusis • Vestibular Problems -Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) -Meniere's Disease -Migraine Associated Vertigo -Labyrinthiti Tympanosclerosis (TS) is a fairly common but radiographically underrecognized cause of postinflammatory ossicular fixation and noncholesteatomatous conductive hearing loss. Pathologically it represents submucosal deposition of fibrous or calcium within the tympanic membrane, middle ear and rarely the mastoid Click here to download the PowerPoint with embedded videos. Tympanic Membrane Perforation. Click here to view this presentation as a PDF (note: videos will not play) Click here to download the PowerPoint with embedded videos. Tympanosclerosis. Click here to view this presentation as a PDF (note: videos will not play
Tympanosclerosis 14. Tympanic membrane retraction 15. Repeat otoscopy on the other ear. Otitis media and otitis externa. Acute otitis media is an inflammatory condition of the middle ear that can be caused by viruses and bacteria. Typical findings on otoscopy include a bulging red, yellow or cloudy tympanic membrane with an associated air-fluid. Tympanosclerosis has been well described by many investigators.1-8 The TS plaques are located in the lamina propriaoftheTM.Themicrostructure,as seen under the electron microscope, is composed of an irregular 3-dimensional collagen lattice, enclosing spherical min Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a chronic, middle ear inflammation with an effusion, which leads to a fluid build-up behind the tympanic membrane. Also known as glue ear, OME is a common cause of hearing loss in children. Whilst not due to infection, OME can commonly follow acute otitis media tympanosclerosis Ear Pain: true ear disorder or referred? •• Teething (cranial nerve V) --Emerging teeth, impacted molars in teen --Abscess Microsoft PowerPoint - SOHN lecture pharm management of ear disorders 2015.ppt [Compatibility Mode] Author: Cory Parke
Accessible ENT know-how for health professionals. This site provides accessible ENT advice for doctors and nurses. It is especially targeted at junior doctors covering ENT (hence 'SHO' - senior house officer) and professionals in emergency and primary care Tympanosclerosis. Tympanosclerosis is the accumulation of hyaline material, or white plaque, in the fibrous layer of the tympanic membrane. It often occurs secondary to recurrent otitis media, or may develop post surgery. Treatment is not typically necessary
Extensive tympanosclerosis; Approach to any other surgery. Cochlear implantation; Facial nerve decompression; Endolymphatic sac decompression; Trans labyrinthine approach to IAM; Retro labyrinthine approach to vestibular nerve; Sigmoid sinus exposur INTRODUCTION. Otitis media with effusion (OME), also called serous otitis media (), is defined as the presence of middle ear effusion without signs of acute infection .The term glue ear is also sometimes used as a synonym for OME but should be reserved for cases in which the effusion is long standing, and the fluid in the middle ear has become thick and glue-like, as observed during. Download as PowerPoint Open in Image Viewer Figure 32b: Images of hemangioma in the geniculate region in a 48-year-old woman with new right facial fasciculation in the region of the right eye, progressing to the lower face, and then global weakness of the right face with synkinesis Paediatric hearing loss is a common problem; diagnosis and appropriate intervention are central to the child's development. It is estimated that one in five children of around 2 years will have been affected by glue ear and eight in 10 will have been affected once or more by the age of 10. 1 Suppurative Otitis Media. Is an infection of the middle ear usually caused by bacteria from a cold or other respiratory infection. Germs enter the middle ear through the Eustachian tube. The Eustachian tube becomes blocked, trapping fluids in the middle ear cavity. The disease may be acute, (severe, but of short duration) or chronic (recurring.
Serous otitis media (SOM), also known as otitis media with effusion (OME), fluid in the ear, middle ear effusion (MEE), or secretory otitis media, is a condition in which fluid resides in the middle ear. Serous refers to the type of fluid that is collecting inside the middle ear. Serous fluid is usually straw (yellowish) colored liquid or mucus Merck and the Merck Manuals. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world Lesions of the Skull Base. Diseases that affect the skull can be intrinsic to the area or due to extension from either side of the divide. Intracranial lesions, in particular those affecting the pituitary gland and the meninges, can extend downward to involve the skull base (Fig. 20.2a, b ). Several deep spaces of the neck, the masticator. c) Tympanosclerosis d) Bilateral atresia of auditory canal Ans: a. 86.Fitzgerald's caloric test uses temperature at a) 30″cand44°c b) 34°cand 41°c c) 330cand21°c d) 37° c and 41°c Ans: a. 87.The most common cause of cerebrospinal otorrhoea is: a) Rupture of tympanic membrane b) Fracture or petrous ridge c) Fracture of mastoid air cell SUMMARY: Arachnoid granulations are rarely seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) at the posterior temporal bone wall, where they appear as erosions, without bone spicules and often with a lobulated surface. Differential diagnosis includes endolymphatic sac tumor, paraganglioma, chordoma, and chondromatous and metastatic tumors. MR imaging can confirm the diagnosis because arachnoid granulations.
tympanic membrane, tympanosclerosis, atelectasis ofthe ear drum are well documented. Otherrarer complications include mastoiditis, facial nerve paralysis, petrositis and labrynthitis. Intracranial complications are usually devastating and difficult to treat. They result from direct spread, thrombophlebitis or haematogenous dissemination Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by abnormalities in the structure, production, and/or processing of collagen.The new classification, from 2017, includes 13 subtypes of EDS. Although other forms of the condition may exist, they are extremely rare and are not well-characterized. The signs and symptoms of EDS vary by type and range from. Start studying Ch. 14- special senses (eyes and ears)- combining forms. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Computed tomography (CT) scan, also known as computerized axial tomography (), or CT scanning computerized tomography is a painless, non-invasive diagnostic imaging procedure that produces cross-sectional images of several types of tissue not clearly seen on a traditional X-ray.. CT scans may be performed with or without contrast medium. A contrast may either be an iodine-based or barium. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized by a heterogenic phenotype, including hearing loss. The underlying cause of hearing loss, especially sensorineural hearing loss, is not yet clear. Therefore, our objective was to describe anatomic malformations in the middle and inner ear in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome