Renal cell carcinoma PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma - PubMe

  1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denotes cancer originated from the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of cancers in the kidney. The disease encompasses >10 histological and molecular subtypes, of which clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is most common and accounts for most cancer-related deaths
  2. The treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed greatly over the past 15 years. Progress in the surgical management of the primary tumor and increased understanding of the molecular biology and genomics of the disease have led to the development of new therapeutic agents. The management of t
  3. istration. These drugs have demonstrated improved progression-free survival as well as potentially improved overall survival for patients with metastatic disease
  4. ation
  5. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development. However, the RCC-obesity link has not been fully addressed when considering a comprehensive scenario starting from pathogenetic aspects through pathological issues up to the outcome of medical treatment
  6. Background: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab produced objective responses in patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma in a pilot study. This phase 3 trial compared nivolumab plus ipilimumab with sunitinib for previously untreated clear-cell advanced renal-cell carcinoma. Methods: We randomly assigned adults in a 1:1 ratio to receive either.
  7. Enucleation of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Ablation of the Tumour Base - PubMed The present series and other available clinical data suggest that enucleation with cavity ablation is an oncologically sound approach that is simple, versatile and obviates the need for renal ischaemia

The tumor immune microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer progression and response to immunotherapy in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), yet the composition and phenotypic states of immune cells in this tumor are incompletely characterized. We performed single-cell RNA and T cell rece Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of urologic malignancies, accounting for an estimated 36,000 new cases of carcinoma and 12,000 deaths in 2005. Nephrectomy is the usual treatment; however, after nephrectomy, RCC recurs in 20% to 40% of patients with clinically localized disease

Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the United States with 90% being attributed to renal cell carcinoma. Men, especially black men, are more likely to be affected than women... Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a highly vascular type of kidney cancer arising in the epithelial elements of the nephrons. The most common histological subtype of RCC is clear cell carcinoma (approximately 75% of cases). RCC is often asymptomatic until it reaches a late stage. In England and Wales, kidney cancer is the eighth most common cancer in men and the fourteenth most common in women Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denotes cancer originated from the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of cancers in the kidney. The disease encompasses >10 histological and molecular subtypes, of.. Renal cell carcinoma is a male-predominant (2:1 ratio) disease with a typical presentation in the sixth and seventh decades of life (median age about 60 years). Patients with this cancer can present with local or systemic symptoms, although most presentations are incidental with the widespread use of abdominal imaging

  1. Renal-cell carcinoma is considered to be a radioresistant tumour, but this notion might be wrong. If given in a few (even single) fractions, but at a high fraction dose, stereotactic body radiotherapy becomes increasingly important in the management of renal-cell carcinoma, both in primary settings and in treatment of oligometastatic disease
  2. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the more commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. In the United States in 2021, about 76,080 cases of kidney cancer and renal pelvis cancer are expected to occur and lead to an estimated 13,780 deaths.[] This cancer accounts for about 4% of all adult malignancies.[] The male-to-female ratio is 1.9:1.[
  3. Renal medullary carcinoma is found exclusively in patients with a hemoglobinopathy, most commonly sickle cell trait, and is characterized by loss of expression of the chromatin regulatory gene SNF5/INI-1. 27 Very little information has been isolated from the genome to enable a better understanding of the pathophysiology of these tumors
  4. To elucidate the deregulated functional modules that drive clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), we performed comprehensive genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic characterization of treatment-naive ccRCC and paired normal adjacent tissue samples
  5. Renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumor) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumor. They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic hematuria occurs in 60% of the cases

Renal cell carcinoma

Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) - PubMed Health

The scientific understanding of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has improved in recent decades. Nevertheless, there has been little research into the role that lncRNAs play in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). More lncRNAs are assumed to influence the progression of ccRCC via their own molecular mechanisms. This study investigated the prognostic significance of differentially expressed. Each year, an estimated 338,000 new cases of renal-cell carcinoma are diagnosed worldwide, 1 and approximately 30% of patients present with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. 2 A number.

The Role of Obesity in Renal Cell Carcinoma - PubMe

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy arising from the renal parenchyma/cortex. Clear cell RCC accounts for the majority (over 80%) of primary renal malignancies. Incidence increasing along with stage migration to more early-stage diagnosis due to the frequent use of sensitive imaging. Often asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a heterogeneous disease with wide variations in its clinical presentation, natural history, and response to therapy. Multivariate prognostic models, based on timing of the development of metastases (eg,.

miR-155-5p Promotes Cell Proliferation and Migration of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma by Targeting PEG3. (PubMed, Urol Int) These findings validated the effect of miR-155-5p/PEG3 on ccRCC cells and provided novel potential targets for the prognosis and treatment of patients with ccRCC The FDA approves nivolumab (Opdivo) for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. The approval follows a clinical trial that found patients who received nivolumab lived about five months longer compared to those treated with the previous standard treatment, everolimus (Afinitor) Novick AC, Streem S, Montie JE, et al.: Conservative surgery for renal cell carcinoma: a single-center experience with 100 patients. J Urol 141 (4): 835-9, 1989. [PUBMED Abstract] Hatcher PA, Anderson EE, Paulson DF, et al.: Surgical management and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma invading the vena cava. J Urol 145 (1): 20-3; discussion 23-4. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes. World J Clin Cases. 2013;1(9):262-75. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar 26. Escudier B, Porta C, Schmidinger M, Algaba F, Patard JJ, Khoo V, Eisen T, Horwich A. Renal cell carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab versus Sunitinib in - PubMe

The question of screening and preventive measures greatly depends on the cause of the tumor development. For the latter reason, this review focuses on etiology, pathophysiology and risk factors for renal neoplasm. Methods: A literature search using the databases Medscape, Pubmed, UpToDate and EBSCO from 1945 to 2015 Adamane S, Desai S, Menon S. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome associated renal cell carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2017 Jan-Mar;60(1):108-110. doi: 10.4103/0377-4929.200025. Citation on PubMed Abstract. Renal cell carcinoma is the common name applied to adenocarcinoma of the kidney, a tumor arising in the renal cortex and accounting for approximately 85% of malignancies of the kidney (1).Kidney cancer is the third most common malignancy of the urinary tract, after prostate cancer and bladder cancer Synchronous renal cell carcinoma is very rare (0.11-0.37%) finding in our review with an incidence of 0.10% and with a 2:1 male-female ratio. The incidence of synchronous cancer has been found to be higher in GC in early stage than in advanced stages (5.2% versus 2.4%) [ 19 , 20 ]

Enucleation of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Ablation - PubMe

Flanigan RC: Role of surgery in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Semin Urol Oncol 1996, 14:227-229. PubMed CAS Google Scholar 29. Fyfe G, Fisher RI, Rosenberg SA, et al.: Results of treatment of 255 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received high-dose recombinant interleukin-2 therapy Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common primary renal malignant neoplasm in adults. Approximately, 25-30% of cases present with metastatic disease and 2% of cases may have lesions in bilateral kidneys at the time of presentation Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy arising from the renal parenchyma/cortex. Clear cell RCC accounts for the majority (over 80%) of primary renal malignancies. Incidence increasing along with stage migration to more early-stage diagnosis due to the frequent use of sensitive imaging. Often.. Walther M, Johnson B, Cully D, et al. Serum interleukin-6 levels in metastatic renal cell carcinoma before treatment with interleukin-2 correlates with paraneoplastic syndromes but not patient survival, J. Urol., 159 (1998) 718-722. PubMed CrossRef Google Schola

(PDF) [Ureteral and bladder metastases of renal cell

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the deadliest primary genitourinary malignancy typically associated with asymptomatic initial presentation and poorly predictable survival. PubMed Article PubMed. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney. It is a heterogeneous disease, comprised of different histological variants with a distinct clinical course, genetics and response to treatment. The various subtypes identified include clear cell, papillary and chromophobe, among others. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare. Renal cell carcinoma is a potentially lethal cancer with aggressive behavior and a propensity for metastatic spread. Due to the fact that the patterns of metastases from renal cell carcinomas are not clearly defined, there have been several reports of cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with rare metastatic sites and atypical presenting symptoms Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common kidney neoplasm, originates in renal tubular epithelial cells and accounts for 85-90% of adult renal malignancies [].RCC is the sixth- and eight-most common cancer in males and females, and it is estimated that there will be 73,750 new cases of RCC in 2020 in the US [].RCC diagnoses have been increasing in recent years, mainly due to improvements.

Progressive immune dysfunction with advancing - PubMe

Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common urological cancers and its incidence is on the rise.1 Outcomes for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma have improved substantially with the advent of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted drugs, and with the approval of immune checkpoint blocking antibodies in the past 4 years.2 Although each of these drug classes has shown. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Aims and scope. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Renal Cell Cancer (RCC) Guidelines Panel has compiled these clinical guidelines to provide urologists with evidence-based information and recommendations for the management of RCC Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network: Comprehensive molecular characterization of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Nature 499 (7456): 43-9, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract] Benusiglio PR, Couvé S, Gilbert-Dussardier B, et al.: A germline mutation in PBRM1 predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. J Med Genet 52 (6): 426-30, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and aggressive type of renal malignancy. Methyltransferase like 13 (METTL13) functions as an oncogene in most of human cancers, but its function and mechanism in ccRCC remains unreported. qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect METTL13's expression in tissues

Renal medullary carcinoma, also known as RMC, is a rare cancer of the kidney that predominantly afflicts young people of African descent who carry the sickle cell trait, sickle cell disease, or other sickle hemoglobinopathies that can cause sickling of the red blood cells. Renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype (RCCU-MP) is. Background: Bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exists in hereditary forms (von Hippel-Lindau disease, hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma, and hereditary clear cell renal carcinoma) associated with various chromosomal abnormalities, and non-hereditary, apparently sporadic forms. The focus of this study is the clinical description of the latter entity

Introduction. Over the past decade, the number of therapies for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has expanded and overall survival (OS) has substantially improved [1-4].However, most patients eventually succumb to their disease, and the 5-year survival rate has remained low (13.0%) in the general U.S. population, according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and. Introduction. Kidney cancer is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women, representing 3.7% of all new cancer cases, and it is estimated that 63,990 people will be diagnosed in 2017 in the United States. 1 Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer and is responsible for up to 85% of cases; it is more frequent in men than in women (ratio, 1.7:1), and most.

In this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years and older with advanced or metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, measurable disease, and previous treatment with one or more VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors to receive 60 mg cabozantinib once a day or 10 mg everolimus once a day The poor prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features and the consequent urgency to find specific treatment options have prompted us to additionally investigate OTOF expression in a small cohort of patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Although we found a positive correlation of OTOF expression with.

Introduction. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 90% of kidney cancers and 2%-3% of all malignancies. It remains the deadliest genitourinary malignancy, with a new case count globally of approximately 270,000 and over 100,000 deaths annually [].Surgery can be performed for early stage localized tumors, however 30% of patients present with metastases at the time of diagnosis [] Therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma should be tailored to the circumstances and preferences of the individual patient. Age should not be a barrier to effective treatment. Systematic geriatric screening and assessment contributes to the goal of personalised management, in addition to the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. A task force from the International Society of Geriatric. The objective of the present study was to systematically assess the association between dioxin/2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and cancer incidence and mortality. Systematic literature. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) metastasizes in approximately 20-30% cases. The most common sites for metastases are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. Metastases of RCC in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are very rare. Metastatic RCC has a poor prognosis. We herein present a case series of three patients with metastatic disease in the colon, duodenum, and pancreas following complete resection.

Renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumour) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumour. They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic haematuria occurs in 60% of the cases Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (ccpRCC) was introduced as a new tumor entity by the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal neoplasia because of its unique morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features, and its indolent clinical behavior. 1-4 It was initially described in 2006 in conjunction with end-stage renal disease. 5 However, sporadic cases of. Other histologic renal tumor subtypes, including clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) and papillary renal carcinoma, are uncommon in patients with BHD. Among 70 BHD patients with renal tumors and an FLCN pathogenic variant seen at the National Institutes of Health and identified through a literature review, 5 (7%) reportedly died from. Wider clinical applications of 9p status in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are limited owing to the lack of validation and consensus for interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (I. Clear cell RCC represents the most common type of RCC, comprising approximately 60% of all renal tumors. It is almost 2-fold more common in males than in females, with a peak incidence in the sixth and seventh decades.4 The classic clinical triad of hematuria, pain, and palpable mass now occurs in only a few cases. Currently, most cases are asymptomatic and identified on imaging as an.

Effect of glandular metastases on overall survival of patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma in the antiangiogenic therapy era.  Urol Oncol . 2016;34(4):167.e17-167.e23. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.10.015 PubMed Google Scholar Crossre Familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is relatively rare. Reports (e.g., Franksson et al., 1972; Goldman et al., 1979) suggest an early average age at diagnosis and frequent bilateral or multiple primary tumors in familial cases. Rusche (1953) observed hypernephroma in 2 brothers. Both had distant metastasis as the first manifestation and both were in their early thirties at the time of diagnosis

Standard treatment of renal neoplasms remains surgical resection, and nephrectomy for localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC) still has the best chance of cure with excellent long-term results. For smaller renal masses, especially stage T1a tumours less than 4 cm, nephron-sparing surgery is often employed. However, small incidentally detected renal masses pose an important diagnostic dilemma as a. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the kidney and accounts for 2-3% of the total human cancer burden [].Clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is the most prevalent histopathological subtype, comprising 80-90% of all RCC cases [].Patients with non-metastatic ccRCC are treated with curative intent by (partial) nephrectomy

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[745][3] Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) improve survival in a subset of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). To identify genomic alterations in ccRCC that correlate with response to anti-PD-1 monotherapy, we performed whole-exome sequencing of metastatic ccRCC from 35 patients Introduction. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common human cancers of the kidney and the seventh most common tumor types [].At the time of diagnosis, nearly 30% of RCCs have already metastasized [].Surgical resection can effectively resolve clear cell RCC (ccRCC); however, 40% of patients suffer local recurrence or distinct metastasis following surgery [] Purpose: Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-deficient RCC) is a rare but lethal subtype of RCC. Little is known about the genomic profile of FH-deficient RCC, and the therapeutic options for advanced disease are limited. To this end, we performed a comprehensive genomics study to characterize the genomic and epigenomic features of FH-deficient RCC

You may have no symptoms at first. They may appear as the cancer grows. See your health care provider if you notice. Blood in your urine. A lump in your abdomen. Weight loss for no reason. Pain in your side that does not go away. Loss of appetite. Tests to diagnose kidney cancer include blood, urine, and imaging tests The immune cell changes that occur with advancing disease stage in renal cell carcinoma are incompletely characterized. Braun et al. show that terminally exhausted CD8+ T cells and M2-like tumor-associated macrophages are enriched in advanced disease and interact to form an immune dysfunction circuit that is associated with poorer prognosis 300854 - RENAL CELL CARCINOMA, Xp11-ASSOCIATED; RCCX1 ASPSCR1/TFE3 Fusion Gene. In papillary renal cell carcinoma tissue from two 5-year-old Belgian girls of African origin, Heimann et al. (2001) identified a translocation t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) that fused the N-terminal region of the ASPSPR1 gene to the C-terminal region of TFE3 including the bHLH DNA-binding domain and the leucine zipper. 605074 - RENAL CELL CARCINOMA, PAPILLARY, 1; RCCP1 Somatic Abnormalities. Kovacs et al. (1991) found that papillary renal cell carcinoma is characterized by trisomy of chromosomes 3q, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, or 20, and in men by loss of the Y chromosome. In combined trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 17, the only karyotypic change was found in several tumors, including some with size of less than 2 mm in. Longer follow-up data and new trial data from phase III randomised controlled trials investigating immune checkpoint blockade (programmed death-receptor [PD]-1 or its ligand PD-L1) in advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or dual immunotherapy have recently been released. The RCC Guidelines Panel recommends the combinations of axitinib.

Renal cell carcinoma - Investigations | BMJ Best Practice

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas (sRCC) may develop when one of the more common histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma degenerates into a sarcoma. On imaging, they are generally large masses, with irregular contours, and malignant-appearing, but do not have specific imaging features Renal cell carcinoma occurs approximately 20 years earlier in people with acquired renal cystic disease than in the general population. ACKD is more frequent in men and African-Americans are significantly more likely both to both be on dialysis and to have ACKD. Europe PubMed Central is a service of the Europe PMC Funders' Group working in.

Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations is frequently reported in children, but adult-onset is rare. Here, the case of an adult male who developed a renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations is presented. METHODS. A 38-year-old Asian man presented with left back pain and macroscopic hematuria Qi H, Ohh M: The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-induced cytotoxicity by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic pathway. Cancer Res. 2003, 63: 7076-7080. PubMed CAS Google Scholar 75 1 INTRODUCTION. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by various genetic abnormalities, and the accompanying clinical and biological heterogeneity plays a crucial role in the modification of drug resistance, signalling networks, distant metastasis and prognosis. 1-3 Clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is the most prevalent histopathological type, constituting more than 85% of metastatic RCC (mRCC.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignant tumor of the urogenital system, the incidence of which is only next to that of prostate cancer and bladder cancer, accounting for 2.2% of adult malignant tumors [].At present, radical surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with early-stage RCC [].However, due to the asymptomatic or covert symptoms of kidney cancer in the early. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence and mortality rates vary significantly around the globe. Risk factors for RCC are smoking, obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. In individuals at a higher risk of RCC, the cost effectiveness of a screening programme needs to be assessed on a country specific level. Owing to the low incidence of RCC, there is an unmet need for accurate biomarkers Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignancy of genitourinary system, and accounts for approximately 2-3% of all malignancies in adults 1.After clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary renal cell. Transcription factor E3-rearranged renal cell carcinoma (TFE3-RCC) has heterogenous morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features. 131 pathologists with genitourinary expertise were invited in an online survey containing 23 questions assessing their experience on TFE3-RCC diagnostic work-up. Fifty (38%) participants completed the survey. 46 of 50 participants reported multiple patterns.

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Although renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered a strongly immunogenic cancer 2, immunosuppression frequently occurs when immune cells are exhausted and inhibited by uncontrolled tumour progression. The dysfunction of T cells, which play an important role in adaptive immunity, is involved in carcinogenesis and tumour progression Furthermore, it is well known that the prevalence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is drastically increased in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, screening of RCCs in HD patients is a very important and urgent issue as there are no highly sensitive tumor markers for RCCs. Monochrome superb microvascular imaging (mSMI) is a relatively new. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among renal tumors worldwide [], and its incidence continues to steadily increase in most countries [].The advancements and penetration of modern radiologic imaging tools, including computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography, have contributed to the overall increase in the incidental detection of RCC, particularly that of. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignant tumour of the genitourinary system. We aimed to analyse the potential value of metastasis-related biomarkers, circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and the proliferative marker Ki-67 in the diagnosis of RCC. Data from 24 laparoscopic radical nephrectomies (RNs) and 17 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (PNs) were collected in 2018 Core tip: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an aggressive malignancy, which, from an immunological point of view, is highly variable. In the era of immunotherapy for metastatic RCC with interferon or interleukin it was always emphasized that spontaneous remissions of RCC, although comparatively rare, do occur and support the use of immunological therapies in metastatic disease Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly originates from renal proximal tubules. Intriguingly, disruption of genes frequently mutated in human RCC samples thus far has only generated RCC originated from other renal tubule parts in mouse models. This hampers our understanding of the pathogenesis of RCC. Here we show that mTOR signaling, often activated in RCC samples, initiates RCC development from.