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Research suggests that automatic prejudice is reduced when people's motivation is rather than

Chapter 9 PSYC 430: prejudice Flashcards Quizle

Research suggests that we can have different explicit and implicit attitudes toward the same target. This refers to the _____ Research suggests that automatic prejudice is reduced when people's motivation is _____ rather than _____ internal external During the past years, evidence has accumulated to suggest that even those who endorse egalitarian views unwittingly make stereotypical associations and show implicit prejudice, which determines how they evaluate and respond to others. Growing knowledge of these effects has led members of the general public and practitioners to conclude that prejudice is to some extent inevitable, as it is.

Reducing implicit bias: How moral motivation helps people

conclude that prejudice is to some extent inevitable, as it is seen to rely on automatic and uncontrollable associations that affect the way we think about others. In this contribution, we review a recent program of research revealing that even implicit bias can be reduced by activating people's motivation to be moral. We also. research suggests that automatic prejudice is reduced when people's motivation is _____ rather than _____ internal; external when viewing other groups, the sense that each person is the same as the others, or not recognizing individual uniqueness in members, is calle The research on intergroup contact suggests that although contact may improve prejudice, it may make it worse if it is not implemented correctly. Improvement is likely only when the contact moves the members of the groups to feel that they are closer to each other rather than further away from each other Aware of the gap between how they should feel and how they do feel, self-conscious people will feel guilt and try to inhibit their prejudicial response. Even automatic prejudices subside when people's motivation to avoid prejudice is internal (because prejudice is wrong) rather than external (because they don't want others to think badly of them) ited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to.

psy311 3 Flashcards Quizle

  1. ing, but not controlled (C) processing. The response deadline reduced the C estimate but not the A estimate. The motivation to control prejudice moderated the relationship between explicit prejudice and automatic bias. Implications are discussed on applied and theoretical levels. In February 1999, four White New York Police officers shot an
  2. The word prejudice can literally be broken down into pre- and judgment. Aptly, much of prejudice stems from our pre-judging other people's habits, customs, clothes, ways of speaking, and values
  3. Research suggests that learning from these interactions is a form of instrumental This suggests that people do change their biases based on social feedback. Because these ideas about others are learned through interactions (whether people are nice to us, whether they This means that this kind of prejudice might be reduced more easily
  4. For example, externally motivated people, regardless of their level of internal motivation, tend to respond with higher levels of implicit racial bias and automatic negativity toward Black people compared to those whose motivation to respond without prejudice is primarily internalized (i.e., high internal/low external motivation individuals.

Specifically, because we proposed that people that experience a regulatory fit would engage in their goal pursuits with greater intensity, we expected that people who approach egalitarianism with a regulatory focus that fit this strategy better, such as a promotion rather than a prevention focus, would be better at reducing prejudice Further research suggests that stereotype threat can be activated through subtle cues in the environment rather than explicit stereotype activation [58,82]. It is therefore plausible that expectancies regarding performance may be further undermined when stigmatized in-group members are required to perform a stereotype-relevant task in front of. Diversity ideology refers to individual beliefs regarding the nature of intergroup relations and how to improve them in culturally diverse societies. A large amount of scientific literature in social psychology studies diversity ideologies as prejudice reduction strategies, most commonly in the context of racial groups and interracial interactions. In research studies on the effects of. Though overt racism has been in decline for decades, research suggests that more subtle forms of racial bias may be quite prevalent throughout the population (Nosek, 2007).These implicit biases may not be consciously recognized, and are often quite difficult to control (Bargh, 1999).Importantly, they are associated with discriminatory behavior, such as non-verbal negativity toward out-group. describes the automatic associations individuals . make between groups of people and stereotypes about those groups. Under certain conditions, those automatic associations can influence behavior, making people respond in biased ways even when they are not explicitly prejudiced. More than 30 years of research in neurology and social an

This pattern suggests that individuals with more negative racial attitudes may have stronger automatic biases, but that only those low in motivation to avoid prejudice are willing to report their attitudes on an explicit scale (see Fazio et al., 1995, for a similar pattern) There is ample evidence to suggest that negative expectations and stereotypes about the competence of older adults pervade Western culture (e.g., Hummert, 1999; Kite and Wagner, 2002). For example, older adults are characterized as more forgetful and less able to learn new information (e.g., Hummert. in automatic prejudice following training. Contrary to research suggesting negation training is an ineffective means to reduce automatic racial prejudice, the present research suggests negation can be effective when the negation is meaningful. Keywords negation training, prejudice, stereotypin The work of Patricia Devine suggests that this form of prejudice is like a bad habit. It is an over learned response that can be unlearned. As Devine proposes, an important first step is making people aware of discrepancies between their conscious ideals and automatic negative response research, if it is easier for someone to pair negative words with faces of African Americans and positive words with faces of European Americans rather than to do the opposite pairings, it would suggest that this person holds a less favorable implicit attitude toward African Americans relative to European Amer-icans

What this suggests is that a good way to reduce prejudice is to help people create closer connections with members of different groups. People will be more favorable toward others when they learn to see those other people as more similar to them, as closer to the self, and to be more concerned about them Critically, research suggests that mimicry increases self-other overlap and that stereotyping and prejudice reduce it. First, there is a robust connection between mimicry and construing the world in terms of the relationships we have with other people ( Galinsky, Ku, & Wang, 2005 ) Indeed, because automatic associations predict prejudiced behaviors, the burden of proof is on those wishing to argue that egalitarian negative associations complicate the assessment of automatic attitudes rather than contribute to prejudiced responses.At the same time, people may automatically dislike oppressed groups as a consequence of. In an era when obesity prevalence is high throughout much of the world, there is a correspondingly pervasive and strong culture of weight stigma. For example, representative studies show that some forms of weight discrimination are more prevalent even than discrimination based on race or ethnicity. In this Opinion article, we review compelling evidence that weight stigma is harmful to health.

The current research tested how expectations and mimicry in an interracial interaction influence positive and negative affect. Existing research suggests that individuals do not expect mimicry, a behavior that should otherwise engender liking, in interracial interactions. Although past research has focused on how Whites' expectations for interracial interactions leads to poor experiences. That is, these areas of research consider individuals' judgments or models about people's social tendencies rather than their accuracy. Measuring accuracy in social judgments is extremely challenging due to the difficulties of creating an objective accuracy criterion (e.g., Funder, 2012; Gilbert, 1998). For example, it is unclear how one. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals experience higher rates of health disparities. These disparities may be driven, in part, by biases of medical providers encountered in health care settings. Little is known about how medical, nursing, or dental students are trained to identify and reduce the effects of their own biases toward LGBTQ individuals

12.3 Reducing Discrimination - Principles of Social Psycholog

For example, research linking implicit prejudice and stereotyping to different neural substrates suggests that these two forms of bias are subserved by different learning and memory systems — a. Several studies address the difference between an external motivation to suppress prejudice and the internal motivation (e.g., Devine, Plant, Amodio, Harmon-Jones, & Vance, 2002; Plant & Devine, 2009). Whereas, internally motivated people are able to reduce their level of prejudice, or at least succeed in suppressing its expression even in. tive tasks. Harkins and Szymanski (1989) found that people working in three-per-son groups generated only 75% as many uses for a common object as they did when working alone. These same groups also made more than twice as many er-rors on a vigilance task of detecting brief flashes on a computer screen than they did when working alone less of people' s prejudice level. Their use, however, can be consciously controlled if motivation and cognitive capacity allow for the suppression of the automatic prejudiced response. Other studies support the incongruency of implicit and explicit attitudes. Banaji and Greenwald (1995), for example, found that implicit gender bias in.

Social Psychology - Chapter 9 Flashcards Quizle

  1. The above arguments paint a rather bleak picture of the consequences of conspiracy theories and conspiracy beliefs, and indeed, the current state of affairs in this research domain suggests that the majority of consequences are negative. It should be noted, however, that not all consequences are necessarily negative
  2. g, the number of trials, and so on. We also exa
  3. ation based on appearance (e.g., Michigan, District of Columbia, San Francisco, Santa Cruz, Madison.
  4. Zhang et al. proposes that the buffering effect of common ingroup will be decreased following sleep loss. Therefore, rather than focusing on the effect of sleep loss on changing implicit bias (though it does assess this), the emphasis of the study is on the changing ability to exert self-control over implicit bias

Low-prejudice individuals gave more positive statements and more beliefs (such as all people are equal) than traits, whereas high-prejudice participants listed more negative statements and. prejudice, sexual prejudice and so on, are all special cases of prejudice, and these special cases are more alike than different. We suggest that prejudice is an affective state, and like other affective states, it has motivational force (Brehm, 1999; Frijda, 1986). When people meet (o Consistent with this notion, Schul (1993) found that people took longer to process misinformation when they had been warned about it, which suggests that, rather than quickly dismissing false information, people took care to consider the misinformation within an alternative mental model. Warnings may induce a temporary state of skepticism. Colangelo, 2005). In this research, people motivated to affiliate with an egalitarian interaction partner exhibited a reduction in implicit prejudice compared to those reduced implicit prejudice compared to th ose who interacted with a low power Black partners who elicit affiliation motivation. Alternatively, rather than resulting fro Third, motivation to seek higher status or self-enhancement commonly results in out-group derogation (9, 10). Last, perceived social norms can prescribe people's expression of stereotyping and prejudice . Despite such challenges, implicit biases can be reduced by learning about counterstereotype cases

How Automatic Is Everyday Behavior? A conscious process can be defined as a mental act that an individual is aware of, intends to carry out (i.e., initiated by free will), is effortful (i.e., cognitively demanding) and can be controlled (i.e., stopped) (Logan & Cowan, 1984). Typically, this occurs when dealing with novel situations, such as. Empathy with others' successes and misfortunes is a critical component of group living that promotes social cohesion. Unfortunately, empathy is a malleable phenomenon in that its elicitation is not automatic, but modulated by multiple interlocking factors. This chapter explores the specific phenomenon of intergroup empathy bias—the difference in empathy for members of social ingroups. The Compassionate Mind. Decades of clinical research has focused and shed light on the psychology of human suffering. That suffering, as unpleasant as it is, often also has a bright side to which research has paid less attention: compassion. Human suffering is often accompanied by beautiful acts of compassion by others wishing to help relieve it Misinformation occurs when people hold incorrect factual beliefs and do so confidently. The problem, first conceptualized by Kuklinski and colleagues in 2000, plagues political systems and is exceedingly difficult to correct. In this review, we assess the empirical literature on political misinformation in the United States and consider what scholars have learned since the publication of that.

Implicit motivation to control prejudice - ScienceDirec

A number of research programs have found that electronic brainstorming is more effective than face-to-face brainstorming (Dennis & Valacich, 1993; Gallupe, Cooper, Grise, & Bastianutti, 1994; Siau, 1995), in large part because it reduces the production blocking that occurs in face-to-face groups The current IAT elicitation paradigm was designed to elicit specific feelings of guilt, based on findings from the literature on prejudice and self-discrepancy theory: this body of research suggests that low-prejudice individuals should experience specific feelings of guilt and remorse when they transgress their own internalized moral standards.

People who are hooked up to the machine and believe that their true attitudes can be detected showed higher levels of racism and sexism than those completing the paper scales than white males. 3. Subtle and Blatant Prejudice in Western Europe • Pettigrew and Meertens (1995) examined blatant and modern racism in France, the Netherlands, and. The results suggest that the level of prejudice and stereotype endorsement affects people's judgements when the category - and not the stereotype per se - is primed. [53] Research has shown that people can be trained to activate counterstereotypic information and thereby reduce the automatic activation of negative stereotypes

Unit 14: Social Psychology, Social Relations Flashcards

  1. In fact, the cognitive miser theory posits that people use stereotypes rather than traits because stereotypes are more accessible and efficient (Taylor, 1980). However, the brain imaging literature suggests that stereotypes and traits rely on overlapping brain networks (Harris et al., 2005 ; Hehman et al., 2014 ), making them potentially.
  2. orities are realized by a persistent avoidance of interaction with other racial and ethnic groups. As opposed to traditional, overt racism, which is characterized by overt hatred for and discri
  3. es psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations - that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms.
  4. Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position. Definitions of empathy encompass a broad range of emotional states. Types of empathy include cognitive empathy, emotional (or affective) empathy, and somatic empathy
  5. ation often are root causes of human conflict, which explains how strangers come to hate one another to the extreme of causing others harm. Prejudice and discri

Video: The Role of Discrepancy-Associated Affect in Prejudice

Chapter 10 prejudice. Course: Social Psychology (Hh/Psyc 2120) Chapter 10 - unde rs tanding pr ejudice, s ter eotyping and discrim ination. The natur e of pr ejudice: pervasiv eness and per spective. - Prejudice is the mos t hea vily stud ied topic in social p sy ch. - E very per son is aff e cted by pr ejudice. To those life-moments when people cry tears of joy or sorrow into each other's shoulders, rather than into N-95s, because that is the policy of the venue. Unfortunately, for you, there is the. Research on psychedelic effects has also shown that, rather than being of necessity a psychotic-type experience, if properly prepared to give the right support, it can promote psychological growth among both the normal population and some of those suffering from any of a wide range of psychiatric disorders (e.g. Masters and Housten 1966, Mogar. teaching people about non­conscious thought processes will lead people to be skeptical of their own objectivity and better able to guard against biased evaluations. Increase Motivation to be Fair: Internal motivations to be fair rather than fear of external judgments tend to decrease biased actions Yes. Research suggests that people only make automatic evaluations when they are highly familiar with the stimulus category; your uncle will probably need more time to make a conscious opinion. Yes. Research suggests that people only make automatic evaluations of other people—not of stimuli like paintings

Reconsidering the accuracy of follower leadership ratings

  1. to be completed. Close contact
  2. Results RTs Data were prepared by using the same criteria as in Study 1 First from PSYCH 4205 at Keystone National High Schoo
  3. Rather, the kind of prejudice that besets so many societies in the world today and which so urgently requires our understanding is the negative variety: the wary, fearful, suspicious, derogatory, hostile or ultimately murderous treatment of one group of people by another

Childhood interracial contact remains as a significant predictor for the difference in amygdala activity to novel Black versus familiar Black when controlling for the amount of information people can recall as well as the set of covariates (implicit and explicit prejudice, internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice), b = .031. With regard to upstream interventions, research shows, for example, that taxes on alcohol are most effective for reducing consumption when they are displayed on the price label, rather than added at the register (Chetty, Looney, & Kroft, 2007), again suggesting that the critical cue must be salient close to the decision point. In addition. Obese people may struggle to lose weight with a low calorie diet because they may have a higher than average set point for body weight. Research suggests that three or four weeks of sustained dieting leads to a lower resting metabolic rate. Obesity (Causes) The weight of adoptive people correlates with that of their biological parents

That is, rather than examining how identical or varied activities within a set influence motivation, we examine how variety between sets influences motivation. Second, we demonstrate how perceived variety affects goal progress perceptions (rather than just motivation), which this previous research did not examine Rather than being absolute categories, automatic and con-trolled can be thoughtof as relativeterms used as shorthandfor referring to differences in the nature, number, or complexity of cognitive operations engaged (e.g., Johnson & Reeder, 1997). That is, automatic processes are said to require fewer cognitiv prejudice than between cultural and implicit prejudice. We set out to test these alternative hypotheses by including in our design two implicit measures of prejudice: the traditional race-IAT (Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, 1998) and the personalized race-IAT (Olson & Fazio, 2004) However, there is some evidence that diversity training that teaches people about discrete actions they can do differently is more successful than when the focus is on attitudes (Bezrukova et al., 2016). Unfortunately, this evidence is focused on diversity training in general, rather than implicit prejudice, so it is of interest only tangentially Rather than attempting to suppress stereotypic thoughts, endorsement of multicultural diversity has been more effective at reducing prejudice (Wolsko, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2000). People for whom multiculturalism is salient are less biased towards people from different cultures than those for whom active suppression is salient (Bodenhausen.

Reducing Racial Bias Among Health Care Providers: Lessons

  1. the world'', rather than acts of revenge for past wrongs (e.g., ''President's Address'', 2001). Our emphasis on revenge as an inference suggests that, rather than debate defini-tions of revenge, psychologists might more productively study the motivational and con-textual factors that lead individuals to label an act as vengeful.
  2. Both perspectives suggest that racial biases are now less blatant than in the past, and that new perspectives and techniques are needed to understand the depth and scope of contemporary racism. The Nature of Aversive Racism. Research from the 1920s through the 1950s typically portrayed prejudice as a psychopathology (Dovidio, 2001)
  3. Much research suggests that both implicit and explicit stereotypes are responsive to current inputs, including the perceiver's thoughts and social context. The findings of a study by Blair, Ma, and Lenton suggest that people may be able to achieve the goal [of suppressing stereotypes] through the activation and strengthening of.
  4. ance orientation (SDO) exa
  5. dblindness,' a number of studies suggests these difficulties vary by context, and when people with autism
  6. Newer research—often by the same people—is beginning to challenge the core assumptions of this narrative. Once again, the amygdala plays a central role. Scientists are beginning to recognize that the amygdala, rather than responding exclusively to negative or fear-inducing stimuli, instead seems to be exquisitely sensitive to emotionally.
  7. ants of their growth and development; their physical, mental, and psychosocial health; and their physical, cognitive, and academic performance. Technological advances of modern society have contributed to a sedentary lifestyle that has changed the phenotype of children from that of 20 years ago

Opportunities Lost: The Impact of Stereotypes on Self and

One of the major tasks of adolescence is to integrate the different aspects of identity into a coherent sense of self. Prior research has found that under certain circumstances, students who identify as members of groups about which there are negative stereotypes can experience a disassociation between their academic identity (i.e., academic self-concept) and the aspect of their identity that. Walker and Crogan (1998) noted that the jigsaw classroom reduced potential for prejudice in Australia, as diverse students worked together on projects needing all of the pieces to succeed. This research suggests that anything that can allow individuals to work together toward common goals can decrease prejudicial attitudes

Understanding Bias: A Resource Guid

This is particularly important on those days when your motivation is low—when you would rather sit at home than go out and run. But your brain is on your side in this. In a 2013 study, Neal and Wood found that, when we are tired or distracted, we avoid making decisions. [10 On the one hand, some research has found that giving jury instructions before rather than after the evidence results in better recall of the instructions, 108 lower conviction rates, 109 deferral of determining a defendant's guilt and thus not jumping to a conclusion until after all the evidence has been presented, 110 and appropriate. This study emphasises the power of superordinate goals in reducing prejudice (Aronson & Osherow, 1980). Of all human weaknesses, none is more destructive of the dignity of the individual and the social bonds of humanity than prejudice. According to a variety of investigators, modern prejudice and discrimination has merely become more subtle

The Top 10 strategies for reducing prejudice (Part I

Seven Lessons about Prejudice from Social Neuroscience

Automatic evaluations are crucial for survival, but conscious self-reflection enables the formulation of nuanced evaluations to serve long-term goals. To operate effectively, both automatic and reflective evaluative processes need to integrate stored representations from previous experience (attitudes) with current contexts and goals, but contexts and goals have a more prominent role in. Indeed, prior research argues that change is more significant when perceivers encounter multiple out-group members who are still categorised as typical members of that out-group, rather than. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges ' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action. The last two decades have seen the development of a body of literature in evolutionary psychology that seeks to attribute negative attitudes to ethnic and racial minorities and other outgroups to an evolved behavioral immune system (BIS). It hypothesizes that disgust sensitivity, which evolved as protection against pathogen threats, also triggers reactions to cues that are not viscerally.

Based on the results of our own studies, however, we suggest that weight monitoring is more likely to be successful when the exposure to palatable food stimuli is reduced (Papies et al., 2007; Stroebe et al., 2008) and the dieter is instead reminded repeatedly, but subtly, of the goal of dieting (Papies et al., in press-a) In over 500 experiments, interacting with someone from a different group reduced prejudice in 94 percent of the cases. Part of the power of intergroup interaction is that it shifts attention away from our own egos and toward concern for those who have been disadvantaged Altruistic motives (other-oriented rather than self-oriented motivation) are related to the amount of help one individual may offer to someone in need. Helping behavior is also related to the skills and abilities of individuals facing helping-tasks, as well as the power to offer effectiveness help ( Clary and Orenstein, 1991 ) In this view, individuals have a preference for attractive people or a prejudice against unattractive people, regardless of their productivity (Hamermesh Reference Hamermesh 2011). This is similar to positive or negative biases in favor of or against members of particular groups (e.g., in relation to their sex, ethnicity, race, or religion)